Et Seq.

The phrase et seq. is an abbreviation of the Latin “et sequentes,” or “et sequential,” which mean “and the following.” In written documents, et seq. is used to reference specific pages, sections, or list numbers within statutes, articles, regulations, or other works, to indicate that the information is continued in the sections, or on the pages, which immediately follow. To explore this concept, consider the following et seq. definition.

Definition of Et Seq.


  1. – and the following


Latin  sequēns

How is Et Seq. Used

In legal writing, it is common to provide references to rules, laws, codes, and other writings. This is done by stating where the reference information can be found, and such references, or citations, can add a significant amount of extra material to the document. It is common for attorneys to use the phrase et seq. to include numbered lists, sections, or pages after the first number, section, or page listed. This makes such citations shorter and easier.

For example:

People Vision Cable Company’s personnel policies are outlined in Section III, subsections 1A through 6D of the company’s policies and procedures manual. Referring to the company’s maternity leave policy can be simplified by stating, “People Vision’s maternity leave is outlined in detail in Section III, subsection 2A et seq. of the policies and procedures manual.”

Difference Between Et Seq. and Etcetera

The term etcetera, usually abbreviated “etc.,” is a Latin term meaning “and other things,” or “and so forth.” While this seems similar to the meaning of et seq., there is actually a distinct functional difference between et seq. and etc. Et seq. refers to specifically known text. Etc. is commonly used to refer to the rest of a list, when there is no doubt as to what is being omitted.

For example:

The sentence, “all non-human primates – monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas, etc. – exhibit very human-like emotions, such as happiness, sadness, worry, etc.,” leaves the reader to fill in the lists with similar items in his own mind.

Et seq. requires an orderly statement of the written material to which the writer is referring. For instance, it would not make sense to say, “this rule is derived from Title III, Sections 2, 6, and 3 et seq.” This is because et seq. specifically refers to the text “following” the section stated. By stating the sections out of numerical order, there can be no logical “and the following” to refer to.

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