Atwater v. City of Lago Vista

Following is the case brief for Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318 (2001)

Case Summary of Atwater v. City of Lago Vista:

  • Atwater was arrested for driving while neither she nor her children had seatbelts on.  The arresting officer’s treatment of her was humiliating.
  • Atwater sued the City of Lago Vista, alleging a violation of the Fourth Amendment.
  • The District Court dismissed the suit, and the Court of Appeals ultimately affirmed that dismissal.
  • The Supreme Court affirmed as well.  The Court held that, despite the indignity, arresting someone for a very minor offense does not violate the Fourth Amendment.

Atwater v. City of Lago Vista Case Brief

Statement of the Facts:

Texas law requires that a person in the front seat of a car must wear a seatbelt (if the car is so equipped), and all children in the front seat must be secured.  A violation of that law is a misdemeanor, and police may arrest someone for such an offense.

In March 1997, Gail Atwater was driving with her two small children in the front seat.  No one in the car was wearing a seatbelt.  A Lago Vista police officer stopped her for the seatbelt violation, berated her verbally, handcuffed her, and took her to the police station.  At the station, Atwater’s belongings were removed, her “mug shot” was taken, and she was left in a cell for one hour before being released on bond by a magistrate.  She ultimately paid a $50 fine for the offense.

Procedural History:

  • Atwater sued in state court, alleging that her Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches and seizures was violated.
  • The case was removed to Federal District Court.  The District Court dismissed the suit.
  • A panel of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed.  However, the Fifth Circuit vacated the panel’s decision and affirmed the District Court’s decision.
  • The Supreme Court granted certiorari.

Issue and Holding:

Does the Fourth Amendment forbid a warrantless arrest for a minor offense, such as a seatbelt offense, that would only result in a fine?  No.


The judgment of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals is affirmed.

Rule of Law or Legal Principle Applied:

If a police officer has probable cause to believe that a person has committed even a minor criminal offense, the officer may arrest the person without violating the Fourth Amendment.


  • History and Common Law do not support Atwater’s position.

Atwater first argues that the common law only allows warrantless arrests for minor offenses when the offense involved a breach of the peace.  A review of pre-founding English law and American law at the time of the country’s founding, however, tends to disagree with that argument.  While not entirely conclusive, the weight of the law throughout history appears to indicate that warrantless arrests were permitted for even very minor, non-violent, offenses.

  • Court should not fashion a new constitutional rule here.

In the alternative, Atwater argues that the Court should fashion a new constitutional rule that only allows an arrest for minor offenses that involve a breach of the peace in order to reflect our current understanding of reasonableness.  Such a rule, however, leaves too much too the officer’s discretion and would therefore be difficult to apply.

  • The arrest, though humiliating, did not violate the Fourth Amendment.

There is no question that Atwater was subjected to unnecessary indignity by a police officer who, at best, showed extremely poor judgment.  That said, Atwater’s arrest was not carried out in an extraordinary manner, nor was it unusually harmful to privacy or person.  Therefore, the arrest did not violate the Fourth Amendment.

Dissenting Opinion (O’Connor):

There was nothing reasonable about Atwater’s arrest.  Atwater was subjected to pointless humiliation for no good State reason.  Therefore, she was subjected to an “unreasonable search and seizure” in violation of the Fourth Amendment.


Atwater v. City of Lago Vista is a case that puts, front and center, the potential for police abuse in even the most minor of infractions.  While the majority is concerned with creating a rule too vague for police to follow (an important concern), the dissent rightfully reminds the Court that racial profiling is a result of police who improperly wield the immense authority they have. Indeed, rather than simply give a citation, the dissent points out that Atwater was handcuffed, processed at the police station, and finally returned to the scene of the arrest, only to find her car towed.  It is worthy of debate whether a seatbelt violation warrants that amount of humiliation.

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