San Antonio Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Rodriguez

Following is the case brief for San Antonio Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. 1 (1973)

Case Summary of San Antonio Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Rodriguez:

  • Texas’ system for funding schools depended, in part, on local property taxes.  As a result, the wealthier districts had greater per-pupil expenditures for their students.
  • In response to an equal protection challenge, the federal district court held that Texas’ system was unconstitutional in violation of the Equal Protection Clause.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court reversed.  It held that “wealth” is not a suspect class, and education is not a “fundamental” right.  Thus, variations in the quality of education based on the wealth of the district in which a child resides does not violate the Equal Protection Clause.

San Antonio Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Rodriguez Case Brief

Statement of the Facts:

The financing of primary and secondary public schools in Texas comes from state taxes and local property taxes.  The state taxes provide for a basic minimum educational foundation, and the local property taxes supplement funds for the locality in which the property taxes were collected.  The end result was that wealthier districts had more tax money for their schools.

The appellees brought suit in federal court, claiming that Texas’ school funding system violated equal protection.  They argued that there were substantial disparities between districts on per-pupil basis, which were disadvantageous to poorer communities.

Procedural History:

  • The District Court held that wealth is a “suspect” classification, and that education is a fundamental right.
  • The District Court concluded that Texas’ system violated equal protection because the state could not provide either a compelling state interest or a rational basis for the school funding system.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari.

Issue and Holding:

Does it violate the Equal Protection Clause to vary the quality of education offered to children based upon the amount of taxable wealth located in a school district in which they reside?  No.


The decision of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas is reversed.

Rule of Law or Legal Principle Applied:

Varying the quality of education throughout a State based upon the taxable wealth in the various school districts does not violate the Equal Protection Clause.


The District Court applied strict scrutiny in error.  “Wealth” is not a suspect class and education is not a “fundamental” right.  Although education is one of the most important services performed by a State, it is not within those limited rights implicitly or explicitly protected by the Constitution.  In addition, given the complexity of fiscal planning and local taxation, this is not a case in which employing strict scrutiny is appropriate.

While Texas’ funding for schools is imperfect, it does not violate the Equal Protection Clause.  The system bears a rational relationship to a legitimate state purpose.  It assures a basic education for every Texas child, and it promotes local participation and control over single school districts.

Concurring and Dissenting Opinions:

Concurring Opinion (Stewart):

While many education systems in many states can be fairly characterized as chaotic and unjust, Texas’ system does not violate the Constitution.  It does not impinge on any substantive constitutional right or liberty.

Dissenting Opinion (Brennan):

Not only does the Texas funding scheme lack a rational basis and thus violate the Equal Protection Clause, but the Court’s assertion that a right is not fundamental unless it is expressly or implicitly guaranteed by the Constitution is incorrect.  The right to an education approaches “fundamental” status because it is necessary for the ability to participate in the electoral process and to exercise First Amendment rights.

Dissenting Opinion (White):

While local control and local decision-making play an important role in our democracy, poorer communities never have a realistic choice on the quality of their public schools because the property tax is lower in those communities.  The Equal Protection Clause allows some discrimination between classes, but the classification must have some rational relationship to the goal of a statute.  Here, if Texas’ goal is to maximize local initiative and local choice, its funding system utterly fails to achieve that goal.

Dissenting Opinion (Marshall):

The majority’s decision departs from recent state and federal court opinions regarding the constitutionality of school funding systems based on taxable local wealth.  Further, the Court’s opinion is a retreat from our historic commitment to equality in educational opportunity.  Finally, relying on some future political process to fix the problem is unsatisfactory because, in the meantime, many children will be deprived of a good education, which they deserve.


San Antonio Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Rodriguez marks a retreat from the lofty principles that served as the catalyst for opinions such as Brown v. Board of Education, including equality in educational opportunity, regardless of race or wealth.  The case also presents an example of the principle that “equal protection” does not “require absolute equality or precisely equal advantages.”

Student Resources:

Read the Full Court Opinion

Listen to the Oral Arguments